A sport that dates back to the 15thCentury, golf last was part of the Olympic Programme at the 1904 Games in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, when the United States and Canada were the only two competing countries. More than a century later, golf again will be played at the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. An indication of golf’s globalization since 1904 is that in Rio, at least 30 countries are expected to be represented in both the men's and women's competitions, from all continents represented in the Olympic Games.

The proposed Olympic competition for both men and women is a 72-hole individual stroke play tournament, with the lowest score earning the gold medal. In case of a tie for either first, second or third place, a three-hole playoff will determine the medal winner(s).